References for Working with Complexity, improving care for people living with Fibromyalgia – vPUK 2020

Working with Complexity, improving care for people living with Fibromyalgia – was delivered by Prof Irene Tracey, Dr Anushka Soni, Leila Heelas and Dr Sandra Wiltshire at Physiotherapy UK 2020, 14th November 2020.

These are the references from the session. Dr Wiltshire has also compiled some further reading.

Professor Irene Tracey

Tracey I, Woolf CJ, Andrews NA. Composite pain biomarker signatures for objective assessment and effective treatment. Neuron. 2019 Mar 6;101(5):783-800.

Davis, K.D., Aghaeepour, N., Ahn, A.H., Angst, M.S., Borsook, D., Brenton, A., Burczynski, M.E., Crean, C., Edwards, R., Gaudilliere, B. and Hergenroeder, G.W., 2020. Discovery and validation of biomarkers to aid the development of safe and effective pain therapeutics: challenges and opportunities. Nature Reviews Neurology, pp.1-20.

Tracey I, Mantyh PW. The cerebral signature for pain perception and its modulation. Neuron. 2007 Aug 2;55(3):377-91.

Tracey I, Dickenson A. SnapShot: pain perception. Cell. 2012 Mar 16;148(6):1308-.

Wanigasekera, V., Lee, M.C., Rogers, R., Hu, P. and Tracey, I., 2011. Neural correlates of an injury-free model of central sensitization induced by opioid withdrawal in humans. Journal of Neuroscience31(8), pp.2835-2842.

Harper, Daniel E., Eric Ichesco, Andrew Schrepf, Johnson P. Hampson, Daniel J. Clauw, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, Richard E. Harris, and Steven E. Harte. "Resting functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray is associated with normal inhibition and pathological facilitation in conditioned pain modulation." The Journal of Pain 19, no. 6 (2018): 635-e1.

Kaplan, C.M., Schrepf, A., Ichesco, E., Larkin, T., Harte, S.E., Harris, R.E., Murray, A.D., Waiter, G.D., Clauw, D.J. and Basu, N., 2020. Association of Inflammation With Pronociceptive Brain Connections in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients With Concomitant Fibromyalgia. Arthritis & Rheumatology72(1), pp.41-46.

Soni, Anushka, Vishvarani Wanigasekera, Melvin Mezue, Cyrus Cooper, Muhammad K. Javaid, Andrew J. Price, and Irene Tracey. "Central Sensitization in Knee Osteoarthritis: Relating Presurgical Brainstem Neuroimaging and Pain DETECTBased Patient Stratification to Arthroplasty Outcome." Arthritis & Rheumatology 71, no. 4 (2019): 550-560.

Segerdahl, A.R., Themistocleous, A.C., Fido, D., Bennett, D.L. and Tracey, I., 2018. A brain-based pain facilitation mechanism contributes to painful diabetic polyneuropathy. Brain141(2), pp.357-364.

Segerdahl, A.R., Mezue, M., Okell, T.W., Farrar, J.T. and Tracey, I., 2015. The dorsal posterior insula subserves a fundamental role in human pain. Nature neuroscience18(4), pp.499-500.

Harris, R.E., Sundgren, P.C., Craig, A.D., Kirshenbaum, E., Sen, A., Napadow, V. and Clauw, D.J., 2009. Elevated insular glutamate in fibromyalgia is associated with experimental pain. Arthritis & Rheumatism: Official Journal of the American College of Rheumatology60(10), pp.3146-3152.

Sarchielli, P., Di Filippo, M., Nardi, K. and Calabresi, P., 2007. Sensitization, glutamate, and the link between migraine and fibromyalgia. Current pain and headache reports11(5), pp.343-351.

Evdokimov, D., Frank, J., Klitsch, A., Unterecker, S., Warrings, B., Serra, J., Papagianni, A., Saffer, N., Meyer zu Altenschildesche, C., Kampik, D. and Malik, R.A., 2019. Reduction of skin innervation is associated with a severe fibromyalgia phenotype. Annals of neurology86(4), pp.504-516.

Evdokimov, D., Dinkel, P., Frank, J., Sommer, C. and Üçeyler, N., 2020. Characterization of dermal skin innervation in fibromyalgia syndrome. Plos one15(1), p.e0227674.

Harris, R.E., Clauw, D.J., Scott, D.J., McLean, S.A., Gracely, R.H. and Zubieta, J.K., 2007. Decreased central μ-opioid receptor availability in fibromyalgia. Journal of Neuroscience27(37), pp.10000-10006.

Denk, F., McMahon, S.B. and Tracey, I., 2014. Pain vulnerability: a neurobiological perspective. Nature neuroscience17(2), pp.192-200.

Baliki, M.N., Petre, B., Torbey, S., Herrmann, K.M., Huang, L., Schnitzer, T.J., Fields, H.L. and Apkarian, A.V., 2012. Corticostriatal functional connectivity predicts transition to chronic back pain. Nature neuroscience15(8), pp.1117-1119.

Littlejohns, T.J., Holliday, J., Gibson, L.M., Garratt, S., Oesingmann, N., Alfaro-Almagro, F., Bell, J.D., Boultwood, C., Collins, R., Conroy, M.C. and Crabtree, N., 2020. The UK Biobank imaging enhancement of 100,000 participants: rationale, data collection, management and future directions. Nature Communications11(1), pp.1-12.

Wanigasekera, V., Lee, M.C., Rogers, R., Kong, Y., Leknes, S., Andersson, J. and Tracey, I., 2012. Baseline reward circuitry activity and trait reward responsiveness predict expression of opioid analgesia in healthy subjects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences109(43), pp.17705-17710.

Vincent, K., Warnaby, C., Stagg, C.J., Moore, J., Kennedy, S. and Tracey, I., 2013. Brain imaging reveals that engagement of descending inhibitory pain pathways in healthy women in a low endogenous estradiol state varies with testosterone. Pain154(4), pp.515-524.


Dr Anushka Soni

Sarzi-Puttini, P., Giorgi, V., Marotto, D. and Atzeni, F., 2020. Fibromyalgia: an update on clinical characteristics, aetiopathogenesis and treatment. Nature Reviews Rheumatology, pp.1-16.

Macfarlane, G.J., Kronisch, C., Dean, L.E., Atzeni, F., Häuser, W., Fluß, E., Choy, E., Kosek, E., Amris, K., Branco, J. and Dincer, F.İ.T.N.A.T., 2017. EULAR revised recommendations for the management of fibromyalgia. Annals of the rheumatic diseases76(2), pp.318-328.

Soni A, Santos-Paulo S, Segerdahl A, Javaid MK, Pinedo-Villanueva R, Tracey I. Hospitalization in fibromyalgia: a cohort-level observational study of in-patient procedures, costs and geographical variation in England. Rheumatology. 2019.

Fitzcharles, M.A., Brachaniec, M., Cooper, L., Dubin, R., Flynn, T., Gerhold, K., Häuser, W., Cowan, K., Laupacis, A., Marleau, R. and Milot, M., 2017. A paradigm change to inform fibromyalgia research priorities by engaging patients and health care professionals. Canadian Journal of Pain1(1), pp.137-147.

Bäckryd, E., Persson, E.B., Larsson, A.I., Fischer, M.R. and Gerdle, B., 2018. Chronic pain patients can be classified into four groups: Clustering-based discriminant analysis of psychometric data from 4665 patients referred to a multidisciplinary pain centre (a SQRP study). PLoS One13(2), p.e0192623.

Napadow, V., LaCount, L., Park, K., AsSanie, S., Clauw, D.J. and Harris, R.E., 2010. Intrinsic brain connectivity in fibromyalgia is associated with chronic pain intensity. Arthritis & Rheumatism62(8), pp.2545-2555.

Schmidt-Wilcke, T., Ichesco, E., Hampson, J.P., Kairys, A., Peltier, S., Harte, S., Clauw, D.J. and Harris, R.E., 2014. Resting state connectivity correlates with drug and placebo response in fibromyalgia patients. NeuroImage: Clinical6, pp.252-261.


Leila Heelas

1.    Sluka, K. A., Frey-Law, L. & Hoeger Bement, M. Exercise-induced pain and analgesia? Underlying mechanisms and clinical translation. Pain (2018). doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001235

2.    Ortega, E., Bote, M. E., Giraldo, E. & García, J. J. Aquatic exercise improves the monocyte pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production balance in fibromyalgia patients. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sport. (2012). doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01132.x

3.    Ernberg, M. et al. Effects of 15weeks of resistance exercise on pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the vastus lateralis muscle of patients with fibromyalgia. Arthritis Res. Ther. (2016). doi:10.1186/s13075-016-1041-y

4.    Bidonde, J. et al. Mixed exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2019). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD013340

5.    NICE. Chronic pain in over 16s: assessment and management Draft for consultation. (2020).

6.    Booth, J. et al. Exercise for chronic musculoskeletal pain: A biopsychosocial approach. Musculoskeletal Care (2017). doi:10.1002/msc.1191

7.    Izquierdo-Alventosa, R. et al. Low-intensity physical exercise improves pain catastrophizing and other psychological and physical aspects in women with fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (2020). doi:10.3390/ijerph17103634

8.    Lichtenstein, A., Tiosano, S. & Amital, H. The complexities of fibromyalgia and its comorbidities. Current Opinion in Rheumatology (2018). doi:10.1097/BOR.0000000000000464

9.    CA, N. et al. Adversity in childhood is linked to mental and physical health throughout lifeNo Title. BMJ28, (2020).

10.    Beal, S. J. et al. Heightened risk of pain in young adult women with a history of childhood maltreatment: A prospective longitudinal study. Pain (2020). doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001706

11.    Bayram, K. & Erol, A. Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Anxiety, and Depression Levels in Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid Arthritis. Noro Psikiyatr. Ars. (2014). doi:10.5152/npa.2014.6958

12.    Gündüz, N. et al. Psychiatric comorbidity and childhood trauma in fibromyalgia syndrome. Turkish J. Phys. Med. Rehabil. (2018). doi:10.5606/tftrd.2018.1470

13.    Low, L. A. & Schweinhardt, P. Early life adversity as a risk factor for fibromyalgia in later life. Pain Research and Treatment (2012). doi:10.1155/2012/140832

14.    Malin, K. & Littlejohn, G. O. Psychological factors mediate key symptoms of fibromyalgia through their influence on stress. Clin. Rheumatol. (2016). doi:10.1007/s10067-016-3315-9

15.    Littlejohn, G. & Guymer, E. Neurogenic inflammation in fibromyalgia. Seminars in Immunopathology (2018). doi:10.1007/s00281-018-0672-2

16.    Burke, N. N., Finn, D. P., McGuire, B. E. & Roche, M. Psychological stress in early life as a predisposing factor for the development of chronic pain: Clinical and preclinical evidence and neurobiological mechanisms. Journal of Neuroscience Research (2017). doi:10.1002/jnr.23802

17.    Haviland, M. G., Morton, K. R., Oda, K. & Fraser, G. E. Traumatic experiences, major life stressors, and self-reporting a physician-given fibromyalgia diagnosis. Psychiatry Res. (2010). doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2009.08.017

18.    Martinez-Lavin, M. Fibromyalgia: When distress becomes (Un)sympathetic pain. Pain Research and Treatment (2012). doi:10.1155/2012/981565

19.    McFarlane, A. C. The long-term costs of traumatic stress: Intertwined physical and psychological consequences. World Psychiatry (2010). doi:10.1002/j.2051-5545.2010.tb00254.x

20.    Furness, P. J. et al. What causes fibromyalgia? An online survey of patient perspectives. Heal. Psychol. Open (2018). doi:10.1177/2055102918802683

21.    PJ, F. et al. A qualitative exploration of experiences of physiotherapy among people with fibromyalgia in the United Kingdom. Pain Rehabil. J. Physiother. Pain Assoc.48, 37–47 (2020).

22.    Toye, F., Belton, J., Seers, K. & Barker, K. A healing journey with chronic pain – a meta-ethnography synthesising 195 qualitative studies. Pain Med.In Press, (2020).

23.    NEFF, K. Self compassion. (Hachette, 2011).

24.    Westover, T. Educated: The international bestselling memoir. (Random House, 2018).

25.    Craske, M. G., Treanor, M., Conway, C. C., Zbozinek, T. & Vervliet, B. Maximizing exposure therapy: An inhibitory learning approach. Behav. Res. Ther. (2014). doi:10.1016/j.brat.2014.04.006

26.    KD, S., PJ, R. & T, G. Inside This Moment: A Clinician’s Guide to Promoting Radical Change Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. (. New Harbinger Publications, 2015).

27.    Gilbert, P. Compassion: Conceptualisations, research and use in psychotherapy. (Routledge;, 2005).

28.    Jespersen K. Fibrositis of muscles. Ann. Rheum. Dis.9, 66 (1950).

29.    EF, T. Fibrositis. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc.16, 531–8 (1968).

30.    MD, R. Clinical diagnosis of psychogenic rheumatism. West. J. Med.128, 285 (1978).

31.    MB, Y., UP, K.-R., K, K.-R. & AT, M. Pathologic changes in muscle in primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Am. J. Med.29, 38–42 (1986).

32.    Wolfe, F. et al. The American College of Rheumatology preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia and measurement of symptom severity. Arthritis Care Res. (2010). doi:10.1002/acr.20140

33.    Gracely, R. H., Petzke, F., Wolf, J. M. & Clauw, D. J. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence of augmented pain processing in fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum. (2002). doi:10.1002/art.10225

34.    Basu, N. et al. Neurobiologic Features of Fibromyalgia Are Also Present Among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients. Arthritis Rheumatol. (2018). doi:10.1002/art.40451

35.    Evdokimov, D., Dinkel, P., Frank, J., Sommer, C. & Üçeyler, N. Characterization of dermal skin innervation in fibromyalgia syndrome. PLoS One (2020). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0227674

36.    Wåhlén, K., Ghafouri, B., Ghafouri, N. & Gerdle, B. Plasma protein pattern correlates with pain intensity and psychological distress in women with chronic widespread pain. Front. Psychol. (2018). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02400

37.    Doebl, S., Macfarlane, G. J. & Hollick, R. J. ‘no one wants to look after the fibro patient’. Understanding models, and patient perspectives, of care for fibromyalgia: Reviews of current evidence. Pain (2020). doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001870


Dr Sandra Wiltshire

Edwards KA, Pielech M, Hickman J, Ashworth J, Sowden G, Vowles KE. The Relation of SelfCompassion to Functioning among Adults with Chronic Pain. European Journal of Pain. 2019 May 21.

Neff K. Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and identity. 2003 1;2(2):85-101.

Dr Wiltshire has included a compilation of resources on compassion.

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